Thảo luận Thành viên:Quangbao/nháp

Từ điển mở Wiktionary
Bước tới điều hướng Bước tới tìm kiếm

IPA[sửa]

Tiếng Anh[sửa]

IPA Examples
IPA: English Consonants
p, pʰ pen, spin, tip
b but, web
t, tʰ[1] two, sting, bet
d[2] do, odd
tʃʰ chair, nature, teach
gin, joy, edge
k, kʰ cat, kill, skin, queen, unique, thick
ɡ go, get, beg
f fool, enough, leaf, off, photo
v voice, have, of
θ[3] thing, teeth
ð[4] this, breathe, father
s see, city, pass
z zoo, rose
ʃ she, sure, emotion, leash
ʒ pleasure, beige, seizure
x Scottish loch[5]
h ham
m man, ham
n no, tin
ŋ ringer, sing,[6] finger, drink
l, ɫ[7] left, bell
ɹ, ɹʷ run, very[8]
w we, queen
j yes
ʍ what[9]
 
IPA: Marginal Sounds
ʔ uh-(ʔ)oh

Tiếng Việt[sửa]

Phụ âm và nguyên âm[sửa]

comparison of orthography & vowel descriptions
Orthography Wikipedia Thompson[10] Han[11] Nguyễn[12] Đoàn[13]
i i i i i
ê e e e e
e ɛ ɛː ɛ a ɛ
ư ɨ ɯː ɨ ɯ ɯ
u u u u u
ô o o o o
o ɔ ɔː ɔ ɔ ɔ
ơ əː ɤː ɜː əː ɤː
â ɜ ʌ ɜ ə ɤ
a æː ɐː ɐː
ǎ a ɐ ɐ ɐ a
Vietnamese alphabet
Letter Name IPA
A a a
Ă ă á a
 â ə, ɜ
B b bê, bờ ɓ, ʔb
C c xê, cờ k
D d dê, dờ northern pronunciation: z, southern pronunciation : j
Đ đ đê, đờ ɗ, ʔd
E e e ɛ
Ê ê ê e
(F) (f) ép [[Wiktionary:IPA|]]
G g giê, gờ ɣ
ʒ(before i, ê, and e)
H h hát, hờ h
I i i ngắn i
(J) (j) gi [[Wiktionary:IPA|]]
K k ca, kờ k
L l e-lờ, lờ l
M m em-mờ, mờ m
N n en-nờ, nờ n
O o o ɔ
Ô ô ô o
Ơ ơ ơ əː, ɜː
P p pê, pờ p
Q q cu, quy, quờ k
R r e-rờ, rờ northern pronunciation: z, southern pronunciation : ʐ, ɹ
S s ét-sì, sờ s, southern pronunciation : ʂ
T t tê, tờ t
U u u u
Ư ư ư ɯ
V v vê, vờ v, southern pronunciation : j
(W) (w) vê kép, vê-đúp [[Wiktionary:IPA|]]
X x ích-xì, xờ s
Y y i dài, i-cờ-rét i
(Z) (z) giét [[Wiktionary:IPA|]]

Phụ âm theo vùng[sửa]

Phụ âm theo vùng
Syllable position Orthography[14] Miền Bắc Bắc Trung Bộ Miền Trung Miền Nam
syllable-initial x [s] [s] [s] [s]
s [ʂ] [ʂ] [ʂ]
ch [ʨ] [ʨ] [ʨ] [ʨ]
tr [ʈʂ] [ʈʂ] [ʈʂ]
r [z] [ɹ] [ɹ] [ɹ]
d [ɟ] [j] [j]
gi [z]
v [15] [v] [v]
syllable-final c [k] [k] [k] [k]
t [t] [t]
t
after e
[k, t]
t
after ê
[t] [k, t]
t
after i
[t]
ch [c] [c]
ng [ŋ] [ŋ] [ŋ] [ŋ]
n [n] [n]
n
after i, ê
[n] [n]
nh [ɲ] [ɲ]

Thanh điệu theo vùng[sửa]

Name Description Chao Tone Contour Diacritic Example
ngang "level" mid level ˧ (33) (no mark) ba 'three'
huyền "hanging" low falling (breathy) ˨˩ (21) or (31) ` 'lady'
hỏi "asking" mid falling(-rising), harsh ˧˩˧ (313) or (323) or (31)  ̉ bả 'poison'
ngã "tumbling" mid rising, glottalized ˧ˀ˥ (3ˀ5) or (4ˀ5) ˜ 'residue'
sắc "sharp" mid rising, tense ˧ˀ˥ (3ˀ5) ´ 'governor'
nặng "heavy" mid falling, glottalized, short ˧ˀ˨ʔ (3ˀ2ʔ) or ˧ˀ˩ʔ (3ˀ1ʔ)  ̣ bạ 'at random'
Thanh điệu theo vùng
Thanh Miền Bắc Miền Trung Miền Nam
 Vinh  Thanh
Chương
Hà Tĩnh
ngang 33 35 35 35, 353 35 33
huyền 2̤1̤ 33 33 33 33 21
sắc 35 11 11, 1̰3̰ 1̰3 1̰3̰ 35
hỏi 31̰3̰ 31 31 31̰ʔ 312 214
ngã 3ʔ5 1̰3̰ 22̰
nặng 21̰ʔ 22 2̰2̰ 2̰2̰ 212
Thompson's diphthongs
Vowel nucleus Front offglide Back offglide Centering offglide
i iu~yu [iʊ̯] ia~iê [iə̯]
ê êu [eʊ̯]
e eo [ɛʊ̯]
ư ưi [ɯɪ̯] ưu [ɯʊ̯] ưa~ươ [ɯə̯]
â ây [ʌɪ̯] âu [ʌʊ̯]
ơ ơi [ɤɪ̯]
ă ay [ɐɪ̯] au [ɐʊ̯]
a ai [aɪ̯] ao [aʊ̯]
u ui [uɪ̯] ua~uô [uə̯]
ô ôi [oɪ̯]
o oi [ɔɪ̯]
Thompson's triphthongs
Centering diphthong Front offglide Back offglide
ia ~ iê iêu [iə̯ʊ̯]
ưa ~ ươ ươi [ɯ̯əɪ̯] ươu [ɯə̯ʊ̯]
ua ~ uô uôi [uə̯ɪ̯]
Vowel nucleus Diphthong with front offglide Diphthong with back offglide Diphthong with centering offglide Triphthong with front offglide Triphthong with back offglide
i iu~yu [iʊ̯] ia~iê~yê~ya [iə̯] iêu [iə̯ʊ̯]
ê êu [eʊ̯]
e eo [ɛʊ̯]
ư ưi [ɨɪ̯] ưu [ɨʊ̯] ưa~ươ [ɨə̯] ươi [ɨə̯ɪ̯] ươu [ɨə̯ʊ̯]
â ây [əɪ̯] âu [əʊ̯]
ơ ơi [əːɪ̯]
ă ay [aɪ̯] au [aʊ̯]
a ai [aːɪ̯] ao [aːʊ̯]
u ui [uɪ̯] ua~uô [uə̯] uôi [uə̯ɪ̯]
ô ôi [oɪ̯]
o oi [ɔɪ̯]
Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless p [p] t [t] tr [ʈʂ~ʈ] ch [c~tɕ] c/k [k]
aspirated   th [tʰ]
voiced b [ɓ] đ [ɗ] d [ɟ]
Fricative voiceless ph [f] x [s] s [ʂ] kh [x] h [h]
voiced v [v] gi [z] r [ʐ~ɹ] g/gh [ɣ]
Nasal m [m] n [n] nh [ɲ] ng/ngh [ŋ]
Approximant u/o [w] l [l] y/i [j]
  Front Central Back
High i [i] ư [ɨ] u [u]
Upper Mid ê [e] â [ə] / ơ [əː] ô [o]
Lower Mid e [ɛ] o [ɔ]
Low ă [a] / a [aː]
  1. Pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA, [ʔ] in some positions in English English, and [t̞] non-initially in Irish.
  2. Pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA.
  3. Pronounced [t̪] in some varieties of Irish and merges with /f/ in some varieties of English English.
  4. Pronounced [d̪] in some varieties of Irish and merges with /v/ in some varieties of English English.
  5. Marginal elsewhere.
  6. In some dialects (e.g. Brummie) "ringer", "sing" etc are pronounced with an additional /ɡ/, like "finger": /ˈɹɪŋɡə/ rather than /ˈɹɪŋə/
  7. [ɫ] does not occur in Irish English, and [l] does not occur in Australian or Scottish English.
  8. The tap [ɾ] is found in some varieties of Scottish and Irish.
  9. Some dialects, such as Scottish, Irish, and much of the American South; see whine and wine and voiceless labiovelar approximant
  10. Bản mẫu:Harvcoltxt
  11. Bản mẫu:Harvcoltxt
  12. Bản mẫu:Harvcoltxt
  13. Bản mẫu:Harvcoltxt
  14. As can be seen from the correspondences in the table, no Vietnamese dialect has preserved all of the contrasts implied by the current writing system.
  15. In southern dialects, v is reported to have a spelling pronunciation (i.e., the spelling influences pronunciation) of [vj] or [bj] among educated speakers. However, educated speakers revert to usual [j] in more relaxed speech. Less educated speakers have [j] more consistently throughout their speech. See: Thompson (1959), Thompson (1965: 85, 89, 93, 97-98).